Crime reduction toolkit

Find out what works in crime reduction.

The crime reduction toolkit summarises the best available research evidence on what works to reduce crime.

Use the crime reduction toolkit to see:

  • the impact of different interventions on crime
  • how and where interventions work
  • how to implement the interventions and their cost

The systematic reviews are interpreted, rated and presented using the EMMIE framework. 

Using the toolkit

All interventions are displayed in this table along with quality of evidence, impact on crime and effect using the EMMIE scale. Use the filters to compare interventions. Click on the specific intervention to find more detail including how and where it works, costs and how to implement it.

Filters
Effect
Focus
Problem
Population
Factor
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Intervention Effect on crime

Effect scale

Quality of evidence (Effect)
New Accident and emergency navigators
Some reduction

Moderate

The quality of evidence (of impact) is moderate
New Halfway house programmes
Overall reduction

Very strong

The quality of evidence (of impact) is very strong
After-school programmes
Mixed findings

Very strong

The quality of evidence (of impact) is very strong
Aggression replacement training (ART) for reducing antisocial behaviour
Mixed findings

Moderate

The quality of evidence (of impact) is moderate
Alcohol pricing
Overall reduction

Strong

The quality of evidence (of impact) is strong
Alley gating
Overall reduction

Very strong

The quality of evidence (of impact) is very strong
Alternative education programmes
Mixed findings

Strong

The quality of evidence (of impact) is strong
Body-worn cameras
Mixed findings

Very strong

The quality of evidence (of impact) is very strong
Boot camps
Mixed findings

Very strong

The quality of evidence (of impact) is very strong
Brief interventions for alcohol use disorders within criminal justice settings
Some reduction

Moderate

The quality of evidence (of impact) is moderate
Car breathalyser lock
Overall reduction

Strong

The quality of evidence (of impact) is strong
Circles of support and accountability for sex offenders
Some reduction

Moderate

The quality of evidence (of impact) is moderate
Closed-circuit television (CCTV)
Overall reduction

Very strong

The quality of evidence (of impact) is very strong
Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT)
Overall reduction

Strong

The quality of evidence (of impact) is strong
Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for domestic violence
Some reduction

Strong

The quality of evidence (of impact) is strong
Crime prevention through environmental design
Some reduction

Low

The quality of evidence (of impact) is low
Criminal sanctions to prevent domestic violence
Mixed findings

Low

The quality of evidence (of impact) is low
Crisis intervention teams (CITs)
Mixed findings

Very strong

The quality of evidence (of impact) is very strong
Day reporting centres
Mixed findings

Very strong

The quality of evidence (of impact) is very strong
Drink-drive stops
Overall reduction

Very strong

The quality of evidence (of impact) is very strong
Drink-driving courts
Some reduction

Strong

The quality of evidence (of impact) is strong
Drink-driving media campaigns
Some reduction

Low

The quality of evidence (of impact) is low
Drink-driving school-based programmes
Some reduction

Moderate

The quality of evidence (of impact) is moderate
Drug courts
Overall reduction

Very strong

The quality of evidence (of impact) is very strong
Drug substitution programmes
Mixed findings

Strong

The quality of evidence (of impact) is strong
Educational interventions to prevent relationship violence
Some reduction

Very strong

The quality of evidence (of impact) is very strong
Electronic tagging for general offences
Mixed findings

Very strong

The quality of evidence (of impact) is very strong
Electronic tagging for sex offences
Overall reduction

Very strong

The quality of evidence (of impact) is very strong
Firearm laws
Overall reduction

Low

The quality of evidence (of impact) is low
Focused deterrence strategies
Overall reduction

Very strong

The quality of evidence (of impact) is very strong
Health visitors
Overall reduction

Moderate

The quality of evidence (of impact) is moderate
Healthcare screening for domestic abuse
Overall reduction

Very strong

The quality of evidence (of impact) is very strong
Hot spots policing
Overall reduction

Very strong

The quality of evidence (of impact) is very strong
Increased police patrols to reduce drink-driving
Some reduction

Strong

The quality of evidence (of impact) is strong
Limiting alcohol sales
Mixed findings

Moderate

The quality of evidence (of impact) is moderate
Lockouts for reducing alcohol-related violence
Mixed findings

Low

The quality of evidence (of impact) is low
Mental health courts
Overall reduction, some rises

Very strong

The quality of evidence (of impact) is very strong
Mentoring
Overall reduction, some rises

Very strong

The quality of evidence (of impact) is very strong
Minimum legal drinking age laws
Mixed findings

Low

The quality of evidence (of impact) is low
Moral reconation therapy (MRT)
Overall reduction

Strong

The quality of evidence (of impact) is strong
Motivational interviewing (MI)
Overall reduction

Strong

The quality of evidence (of impact) is strong
Multisystemic therapy
Some reduction

Very strong

The quality of evidence (of impact) is very strong
Music making
No overall change

Low

The quality of evidence (of impact) is low
Neighbourhood Watch
Overall reduction

Strong

The quality of evidence (of impact) is strong
Police-led pre-charge diversion models for young offenders
Overall reduction

Very strong

The quality of evidence (of impact) is very strong
Prison education
Overall reduction, some rises

Very strong

The quality of evidence (of impact) is very strong
Prison visits
Overall reduction, some rises

Strong

The quality of evidence (of impact) is strong
Probation officer training
Overall reduction

Strong

The quality of evidence (of impact) is strong
Problem-oriented policing
Overall reduction

Very strong

The quality of evidence (of impact) is very strong
Psychological treatment of adults convicted of sex offences against children
Mixed findings

Low

The quality of evidence (of impact) is low
Red light cameras
Overall reduction

Very strong

The quality of evidence (of impact) is very strong
Release on temporary licence
Some reduction

Low

The quality of evidence (of impact) is low
Restorative justice conferencing
Overall reduction

Strong

The quality of evidence (of impact) is strong
Retail tagging to prevent shop theft
Mixed findings

Strong

The quality of evidence (of impact) is strong
Scared Straight programmes
Overall rise

Very strong

The quality of evidence (of impact) is very strong
Second responder programmes to prevent domestic abuse
Some reduction

Strong

The quality of evidence (of impact) is strong
Social skills training for children
Overall reduction

Strong

The quality of evidence (of impact) is strong
Speed cameras
Overall reduction

Very strong

The quality of evidence (of impact) is very strong
Street lighting
Overall reduction

Very strong

The quality of evidence (of impact) is very strong
Teen courts
Mixed findings

Very strong

The quality of evidence (of impact) is very strong
Therapeutic communities
Overall reduction, some rises

Strong

The quality of evidence (of impact) is strong
Therapeutic foster care
Overall reduction

Strong

The quality of evidence (of impact) is strong
Trying youths as adults
Mixed findings

Strong

The quality of evidence (of impact) is strong
Victim-offender mediation
Overall reduction, some rises

Strong

The quality of evidence (of impact) is strong
Wilderness challenge programmes
Overall reduction

Strong

The quality of evidence (of impact) is strong
Young offender aftercare
Mixed findings

Strong

The quality of evidence (of impact) is strong
Youth curfews
Mixed findings

Very strong

The quality of evidence (of impact) is very strong
Zero-tolerance policing
No overall change

Very strong

The quality of evidence (of impact) is very strong
Key

Quality of evidence (of impact)

No information

Low

Moderate

Strong

Very strong