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A list of all the sources of information in this evidence briefing.

First published
Interventions to reduce violence against women and girls (VAWG) in public spaces
3 mins read

Addis S and Snowdon L. (2021). What works to prevent violence against women, domestic violence and sexual violence (VAWDASV)? Systematic evidence assessment. Cardiff: Wales Violence Prevention Unit.

Bogaka E. (2020). Safety of urban park users. In: Ceccato V and Nalla MK, eds. ‘Crime and fear in public places: Towards safe, inclusive and sustainable cities’. London: Taylor & Francis, pp 38–72.

Braun K and others. (2000). Safer bars trainer’s guide. Toronto: Centre for Addiction and Mental Health.

Carline A, Gunby C and Taylor S. (2018). Too drunk to consent? Exploring the contestations and disruptions in male-focused sexual violence prevention interventions. Social and Legal Studies, 27(3), pp 299–322.

Ceccato V. (2019). Eyes and apps on the streets: From surveillance to sousveillance using smartphones. Criminal Justice Review, 44(1), pp 25–41.

Ceccato V. (2020). The architecture of crime and fear of crime: research evidence on lighting, CCTV and CPTED features. In: Ceccato V and Nalla MK, eds. ‘Crime and fear in public places: Towards safe, inclusive and sustainable cities’. London: Taylor & Francis, pp 38–72.

Ceccato V, Gaudelet N and Graf G. (2022). Crime and safety in transit environments: a systematic review of the English and the French literature, 1970–2020. Public Transport.

De La Rue L and others. (2014). School-based interventions to reduce dating and sexual violence: A systematic review. Campbell Systematic Reviews, 10(1), pp 1–110.

Fellmeth GLT and others. (2013). Educational and skills-based interventions for preventing relationship and dating violence in adolescents and young adults: A systematic review. Campbell Systematic Reviews, 9(1), pp i–124.

Garius L and others. (2020). Evaluating harm reduction initiatives in a night-time economy and music festival. In: Ceccato V and Nalla MK, eds. ‘Crime and fear in public places: Towards safe, inclusive and sustainable cities’. London: Taylor & Francis. pp 362–378.

Gekoski A and others. (2015). ‘What works in reducing sexual harassment and sexual offences on public transport nationally and internationally: A rapid evidence assessment’. Middlesex University.

Graham K and others. (2004). ‘The effect of the Safer Bars programme on physical aggression in bars: results of a randomized controlled trial’. Drug and Alcohol Review, 23(1), pp 31–41.

Gunby C and others. (2020). Unwanted sexual attention in the night-time economy: behaviors, safety strategies, and conceptualizing “feisty femininity”. Feminist Criminology, 15(1), pp 24–46.

HM Government. (2021). Tackling violence against women and girls [internet]. [Accessed January 2022]

Jones L and others. (2011). ‘Reducing harm in drinking environments: A systematic review of effective approaches’. Health & Place, 17(2), pp 508–518.

Kavanaugh PR. (2013). ‘The continuum of sexual violence women’s accounts of victimization in urban nightlife’. Feminist Criminology, 8(1), pp 20–39.

Kelly L and Sharps-Jeffs N. (2016). Knowledge and know-how: The role of self-defence in the prevention of violence against women. European Parliament.

Kenny D. (1986). ‘Crime on the subways: Measuring the effectiveness of the guardian angels’. Justice Quarterly, 3(4), pp 481–496.

Maguire M, Nettleton H and Raybould S. (2003). ‘Reducing alcoholrelated violence and disorder: an evaluation of the ‘TASC’ project’. London: Research Development and Statistics Directorate, Home Office.

McGuire J, Evans E and Kane E (2020). ‘Policing the night-time economy: a systematic review of evidence-based practice in evidence-based policing and community crime prevention’. City University of New York.

Office for National Statistics. (2017). Overview of violent crime and sexual offences [internet]. [Accessed February 2022]

Office for National Statistics. (2021). Perceptions of personal safety and experiences of harassment, Great Britain: 2 to 27 June 2021 [internet]. [Accessed November 2021]

Plan International UK. (2018). Street harassment: It’s not ok [internet]. [Accessed November 2021]

Quigg Z and others. (2019). STAD in Europe (Evaluation report).

Solymosi R, Cella K and Newton A. (2017). Did they report it to stop it? A realist evaluation of the effect of an advertising campaign on victims’ willingness to report unwanted sexual behaviour. Security Journal, 31(2), pp 570–590.

Swann R and others. (2015). ‘Street pastors as substitutes for trust in the context of plural policing’. Safer Communities, 14(4), pp 168–182.

Universities’ Police Science Institute. (n.d.). The signal crimes perspective: 60 second briefing [internet]. [Accessed February 2022]

Ure C and others. (2021). How can communities influence alcohol licensing at a local level? Licensing officers’ perspectives of the barriers and facilitators to sustaining engagement in a volunteer-led alcohol harm reduction approach. International Journal of Drug Policy, 98.

Vera-Gray F and Kelly L. (2020). Contested gendered space: public sexual harassment and women’s safety work. International Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice.

Wood MA, Ross S and Johns D. (2021). Primary crime prevention apps: A typology and scoping review. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse.

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